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Arrive from gene group new breed a cucumber also can " heroic "_CosBU

From:Scientific net Www.sciencenet.cnEditor&Writer:Li ChenPublished Time:2019-01-12

    Award of science of 2018 year country second-class award and award of progress of science and technology are second-class member of share of group of award bear the palm

    Group of second-class award bear the palm considers award of progress of science and technology of 2018 year country Xing Fang (right 3) etc

    The domestication of cucumber course

    Middle peasant 26 (what vegetable offers a plan)

    January 8 is the day that congress of award of science and technology of 2018 year country holds.

    Early morning, huang Sanwen and Gu Xingfang are in a piece of film combined before entering people congress hall to attend plenary meeting, make the testimony of friendship of their scientific research.

    They come from vegetable of Chinese agriculture academy of sciences to spend grass institute together (place of vegetable of the following abbreviation) , study cucumber likewise, in same year win national science award respectively second-class award and award of progress of national science and technology are second-class award.

    They lead a group severally, begin collaboration on scientific research again, do the “ kernel ” that was clear about cucumber gene group, lend this directive cucumber element breeding, created considerable economic benefits and social benefit.

    Come more than 10 years, arrive from gene group new breed, cucumber scientific research realized “ to carry day ” on the head truly “ establishs ground ” .

    To let cucumber has cucumber taste

    “ cucumber does not have cucumber flavour! The flavour of ”“ tomato is weaker and weaker. ” vegetable character has become the topic that common people cares, also be the direction that worker of our country vegetable scientific research tries hard.

    But before cucumber gene group defeats interpret, vegetable gene group after all what kind of, do not have a person to know. “ basic research is relatively fragile, bring about vegetable and admirable breed to breed a process slow, molecular breeding have no way is begun. ” Huang Sanwen tells " Chinese division journal " .

    Cucumber is the mode species of cucurbitaceous crop, it is only 300 million alkaline base right, it is vegetable in least. In the meantime, on production, cucumber is one of 5 big vegetable, it is vegetable of the first establishment.

    However, century at the beginning of, the developed country photograph such as level of per unit area yield and Holand compares our country cucumber to still have bigger difference, breed of a few cucumber sends suffering easily below adverse unripe chief condition and affect commodity value badly. In addition, consumer is watched external and gust character and breed diversity demand are higher and higher.

    “ should solve cucumber to produce medium main problem, must innovate the theory of cucumber breeding and technical system. ” Huang Sanwen says.

    But, breeding of heredity of domestic and international cucumber considers to lag behind at the main and vegetable crop such as tomato, Chinese cabbage all the time. Before putting forward to begin combination to consider to cucumber with the person such as Gu Xingfang in Huang Sanwen, cucumber does not have a collection of illustrative plates of complete molecular mark heredity all the time, best genetic a collection of illustrative plates has 200 only many elements mark, it is the AFLP mark that cannot transplant for the most part, and chain group number is more than chromosome amount, cannot cover complete gene group effectively, this limitted research of cucumber heredity breeding badly.

    The structural sex barrier that “ restricts cucumber heredity breeding to consider is his genetic background is very narrow. ” Gu Xingfang tells " Chinese division journal " , cucumber is muskmelon amount of exclusive monoploid chromosome is the species of 7 in 66 species that belong to (other all is 12) , basically cannot have the communication of genetic material through sexual cross and congeneric other species.

    Because genetic background is narrow, it is very difficult that through groovy technical measure development cucumber labels, cause cucumber heredity to study the system is backward, this restricted cucumber biology research and molecular design breeding badly to begin.

    Came 2005 2006, the new generation gene such as “454” and “Illumina” measures foreword technology to come out early or late, make because efficiency is low, time-consuming long, cost is high before and the change that the biology gene group of be terrified by the sight of sth or sb letting a person measured foreword to produce essential sex, low cost, efficient undertake biology gene group measured foreword to become a possibility.

    By 2006, the vegetable place expert that includes Huang Sanwen, Xie Bingyan, Gu Xingfang to wait inside puts forward to use new generation to measure foreword technology to undertake cucumber gene group measures the proposal of foreword. Strong point Du Yongchen allows to become when vegetable place organize for many times early or late hold Party committee and place learning committee to undertake special subject studies.

    Decide finally, study backward situation to break cucumber element heredity, promote cucumber element breeding to study a level, the molecular breeding technology that drives our country other vegetable and even horticultural crop develops, vegetable place plans fund of ten million Yu Yuan oneself, use the new technology that measure order to undertake cucumber gene group measures order.

    After the job that measure order is started formally 2007, the partial project that got ministry of former Ministry of Agriculture, science and technology and commission of national science foundation again supports.

    Unscramble gene group secret

    Our job props up “ each other. Zhang Zhonghua of researcher of group of ” Huang Sanwen tells " Chinese science signs up for " , start beginning from the project, the job of two groups is together with respect to close connection.

    With Huang Sanwen the group is given priority to, researcher holds vegetable place the chance that group of new generation gene measures foreword technology to appear, cut the gene group that saw cucumber of —— of the first vegetable crop genetic code. It is a foundation with this, studied the heredity of complete gene group on the world mutates.

    They confirm, cucumber former koel, through human domestication the choice makes the vegetable that people likes, transmit different district later, formed 3 main types: Ouya cucumber, East Asia cucumber, on the west cucumber of double edition accept. The detached time of East Asia cucumber and Indian cucumber is 2000 old, the historical photograph be identical that with Zhang Qian the Western Regions of be sent on a diplomatic mission gives China to bring this masses vegetable.

    Arrived 2009 2013, afore-mentioned research achievement are published at early or late " natural - genetic " and " print of courtyard of American academy of sciences " wait for international on top class periodical.

    Gu Xingfang says, these achievement are discovery cucumber is important farming art character control gene provided important resource and information, also plant for cucumber the breeding of qualitative resource is used provided academic framework. It is a foundation with this, their clone and located 50 many cucumber farming art character gene, drive cucumber breeding to enter an element to design a times.

    In the light of cucumber per unit area yield cucumber of type of inferior He Huana has occasionally bitter manufacturing problem, 2014, they are in " science " announce to discover control fructification amount is mixed on the magazine acrid the crucial gene that form.

    Huang Sanwen introduces, cucumber has development of female flower ability to become commodity melon only, they discover M gene can control the formation of female flower, m gene is cucumber gets a function first times corroborant important farming art character gene, combined way of this gene effect to develop the gene that raises female flower rate to label, use at assisting cucumber of seed selection high yield.

    In addition, the C of synthetic calabash element in cucumber brings about fructification to become bitter, they discovered control cucumber is acrid corporeal complex 9 gene, discover gene of ” of two “ switch to be respectively in blade and fructification the synthesis that controls acrid material.

    “ shuts ’ of fructification ‘ switch, do not let cucumber become bitter; Open ’ of blade ‘ switch, make blade bitter combat insect. ” Huang Sanwen says, acrid material is accurate adjusting control is the mechanism of accurate adjusting control that metabolization child announces first in the plant.

    Meanwhile, gu Xingfang group uses big data of cucumber gene group, compose built the first Zhang Chao saturation to contain the genetic a collection of illustrative plates of 10629 SNP; Discovered fructification is acrid first gene Bi-3 and G of gene of dominance peel luster, the explain palpability luster, genetic law that defies the character such as poisonous disease of Hei Xing disease, disease-resistant; Development goes with without acrid, luster, fight poison of Hei Xing disease, disease-resistant the molecular mark that the shape of 21 individual character such as disease interlinks cheek by jowl.

    Not only such, research technique system is in cucumber gene group the group of vegetable crop gene such as Chinese cabbage, watermelon and tomato gets applied extensively in research. In our country the make concerted efforts of many units falls, in the international tip such as Nature, Science and Cell periodical publishs paper of many 10 research, drive course of group of our country vegetable gene to enter international banner cavalcade.

    Molecular breeding enters “ to dig golden times”

    Long-term since, the character on production of our country vegetable is admirable, much the cucumber breed amount with be fought as good as high yield sex is insufficient.

    Gu Xingfang introduces, cucumber is original advocate grow breed melon color of long, melon dark, melon the surface has color of Huang Xian, pulp hoar, mouthfeel is poor, affected fructification exterior character and edible quality; Fight more, Gao Kang breed is little, the high yield sex that causes different a particular year is not stable.

    About cucumber method of appraisal of main disease disease resistance, do not have materiality to become uniform standard more, the accuracy that affected result of disease resistance appraisal and can compare a gender, bring about breeding loss of efficiency.

    In addition, on character and disease-resistant breeding technology, still method of breeding of convention of continue to use, without handy and practical molecular mark is usable, breeding cycle is long, choice efficiency is low, bring about breed to change rate is slow.

    “ gene group studies the ‘ that drove cucumber gene digs golden times ’ . ” Huang Sanwen says so. The Chen Huiming's researcher of institute of vegetable of one of natural award gainer, Hunan is based on gene group to study a result, bred “ greens to grind the new breed such as ” series, solved Hua Na successfully to cucumber breed becomes bitter and lose the manufacturing difficult problem of commodity value. Accumulative total popularizes about 1 million mus, creation makes an appointment with 8 billion yuan economy value, gained distinct social benefit.

    In addition, with Gu Xingfang the group is given priority to, fetched a few significant primary gain that achieve a gender.

    Zhang Shengping of researcher of Gu Xingfang group tells " Chinese science signs up for " , they spend ten years of time to collect save and the system evaluated 5637 to plant qualitative, great and rich library of qualitative resource of colza of our country greens.

    Evaluate a technology through founding 8 advanced and efficient disease resistance appraisal and character, disease-resistant of group hair disinter is high grade resource 19, the disease-resistant appraisal technology that develops 8 kinds of main disease such as a Hei Xing disease, virus disease and melon evaluate the character such as stripe of length, yellow technology, issue occupation standard 10, be dug for exceedingly good gene and high grade fought breeding to provide kind of qualitative basis more.

    Gu Xingfang still guides a group to take the lead in contriving give polymerization to wait for 5-6 without acrid, luster high grade gene and fight the 5-10 such as Hei Xing disease, virus disease of disease-resistant gene matching join forces high to be handed in oneself is 12, captured high grade with disease-resistant gene hard aggregate technical difficult problem. “ broke through close thorn cucumber not to fight Hei Xing disease, fruit cucumber not to fight the breeding bottleneck of virus disease. ” Gu Xingfang says.

    Use those who contrive is high grade fight more join a department oneself, they adopt molecular breeding measure, breed new generation high grade fight new breed more 8, realized close thorn cucumber high grade the breakthrough that fights breeding more. Middle peasant 16 date, middle peasant wait 26 numbers, occupy the establishment cucumber such as Liaoning, Heibei advocate the 50% above of gross area yield a division; Middle peasant 106 date, middle peasant wait 18 numbers, make the 7 provinces division such as Guangdong, Yunnan advocate grow variety, occupy advocate the 30% above that produce a division.

    Afore-mentioned new breed are saved 27 times in the whole nation (city, area) accumulative total popularizes eleven million eight hundred and seventy-nine thousand mus, increase socioeconomy benefit newly 9.161 billion yuan, popularize four million nine hundred and thirty-five thousand two hundred mus nearly 3 years among them, increase socioeconomy benefit newly 3.697 billion yuan.

    The bedding face of “ new breed accumulates promotion, take off deficient to become rich for the farmer not only made positive contribution; Because its fight quality more, reduce pesticide to use an amount 20% above, promoted development of vegetable industry green, zoology benefit is distinct. ” Zhang Shengping says.

    More important is, gu Xingfang thinks, these achievement drove progress of industry science and technology: The application of technology of breeding of polymerization of molecular mark polygene, the heavy revolution that realized cucumber convention breeding and union of molecular breeding photograph; Yo becomes the promotion application of new breed, occupied position of native market dominant to make important contribution for breed of our country cucumber.

    Relevant special subject: Liu Yongtan, Qian Qihu wins 2018 year states award of highest science and technology

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