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How to prevent gene to edit a technology to break through a bottom line: Emersion of vigilant and sc_CosBU

From:Insurgent newsEditor&Writer:Liu Chu of Wu Yuewei of duckwePublished Time:2019-01-14

    Border edited one word at academic gene once upon a time, 2018, be like Jing thunder to pass into home of common common people.

    DNA and gene are the core code of organism, gene alignment is changed accurately like using element of a group of biology to resemble scissors or rubber namely gene edits a technology. Come a few years, gene editor technology is in plant, animal, microbial the application that waits for a domain and research advance rapidly, promoted the development of life science greatly.

    Through 30 old development, editorial doorsill has reduced gene to buy a cheap scissors as arriving in the supermarket gradually, can begin in the home next patchy and same: Capital problem, reagent is rare be short of etc, not be an obstacle already.

    While the technology leaps, be anxious to be caused with day.

    · He Lali is in Youwaer " future brief history " say or state with certainty in one book, in gene engineering field, the mankind should have major breakthrough only, use impossibly at treat and need not upgrading at evolution only. In the book, his pessimistic prophecy is in the course that seeks healthy, joy and power, what the mankind changes him slowly is idiosyncratic, till the mankind it is the mankind no longer.

    Edit the negative effect that the technology brings to restrain gene, if step human embryo domain at will and even more quadrature, the academia and government reach consensus in effort, establish a standard, include all sorts of prohibiting the measure of gender and limitation.

    But the clearance of the code between the impulse of scientific maniac and country, still make indifferent technology smooth give cross the border likely, bring the risk hidden danger that cannot redeem and ethical tragedy thereby.

    How to pass the gene editor that involves human embryo basket in? Need the self-discipline of scientific group, need more ethics is examined and superintendency respect continuity adds the government to father and be refined.

    Huang Jie of undersecretary of committee member of national apparatus alms and transplanting committee chairman, former Ministry of Public Health's husband appeals, earnestly needs to establish committee of authoritative life science ethics in national level.

    “ need is vigilant is the huge risk that the orgnaization that is eager to driving science and technology to innovate and society can be ignored or underestimates science and technology, this need is in charge of concept and culture level to try to take seriously from the inspect of deep administrative levels. Professor of courtyard of a Confucian school of idealist philosophy of the Song and Ming Dynasties of fair condominium of university of ” China people, country sends courtyard researcher Liu Peng to say.

    Gene edits: Although the experiment of embryo of mankind of the experience before this approachs a bottom line but all did not even more quadrature

    From discovery DNA, it is OK to arrive can accuse the ground to revise it, the mankind spent time of more than 100 years.

    Net of nobel prize official shows, 1972, the · of American biologist Paul that studying hubbly virus SV40 at that time uncle case (Paul Berg) the lab created DNA” of first “ cross: The researcher of his lab inserts a paragraph of DNA of the bacterium DNA of a virus in, this is called again “DNA recombines ” .

    After this, it is increasingly mature that DNA recombines a technology.

    And recombine photograph comparing with DNA, gene editor is original to organism DNA is more accurate, more efficient revise. This one technology is known as biology black science and technology, also be life science domain most one of technologies of “ net red ” .

    On the foundation that studies in forefathers, 1996, ZFN of technology of editor of generation gene (zinc points to nucleic acid enzymatic Zinc Finge Nucleases) be born.

    Was named 2002, the CRISPR-Cas9 that the left and right sides matured gradually 2013 is technology of editor of the 3rd acting gene, demon of gene of the “ that be called cuts ” , department gene edits one of technologies with technical the most popular domain.

    And the sheet that was reported first in April 2016 is alkaline base editor technology BE (Base Editor) be considered as more advanced than CRISPR gene to edit a technology, be being optimized to upgrade.

    After gene edits technical invention to come out, be applied in fish of drosophila, zebra, plant above all, it is a person next.

    Current, the more of gene editor experiment that undertakes on human body is to be aimed at cell of reproduction of body cell and rather than, can achieve the cure to the disease already, still avoided the problem of the gene heredity that is revised, because this gets esteem and encourage.

    For example, in May 2018, european approval edits a technology to treat the clinical trial with exsanguine mediterranean with gene on human body; Of the same age December, the American company Editas Medicine that Zhang Feng of scientist of character of authority of gene editor domain, foreign citizen of Chinese origin participates in combination to found announces to win the approval of American FDA, will begin gene to edit congenital amaurosis of remedial disease Leber 10 model (LCA10) clinical experiment.

    And the whole world undertakes to human embryo editorial experiment fastens gene to be begun by Chinese scientist first.

    In April 2015, the Huang Jun of university of Guangzhou city Zhongshan is in with respect to research group academic periodical " protein and cell " (Protein&Cell) in publish a paper, reported use CRISPR technology to be opposite 86 mankinds triploid (3PN) the result that the HBB gene in embryonic cell has gene edits an experiment.

    After this, undertook human embryo gene edits an experiment domestic and internationally many cases again.

    Guangzhou medical university is accessary the person such as Liu Jianqiao of director of center of medicine of reproduction of the 3rd hospital is in paper " the application of gene editor technology in human reproduction cell studies " in, check summed up newest progress.

    August 2017, american Russia forces the Shoukhrat Mitalipov group of university of ridge health science, to exceeding 50 individual embryo medium MYBPC3 gene had an edition, discover 16 embryo happened to be not anticipated gene is inserted or gene is short of break. The spermatozoon of the patient of cardiac muscle hypertrophy that researcher uses photograph of MYBPC3 gene mutation to close and ” of normal ovum “ production before narrate embryo to be used at the experiment.

    Of the same age in October, francis overcomes British London in · gram the person such as the Kathy Niakan of the institute, with CRISPR/Cas9 technology the OCT4 gene in embryo of normal to the person diploid had an edition, discover OCT4 gene be short of break, affected the formation of human bursa embryo, the research in this and small rat embryo differs as a result.

    In the human embryo that China has gene edits experimental amount more, liu saw be listed 7 cases in bridge paper.

    September 2017, shandong university is accessary reproductive hospital is presiding college of medicine of university of traffic of expert, Shanghai is accessary group of Chen Zijiang of adviser of doctoral student of benevolence aid hospital publishs a paper to say, use SaKKH-BE3 technology to be opposite person triploid the FANCF gene in embryo the dot has an edition in, 3 embryonic editor efficiency are achieved 100% .

    Meanwhile, huang Jun publishs a paper to say with respect to the group, use the body nucleolus of the Mediterranean exsanguine patient of HBB gene mutation, with go nuclear oocyte undertakes confluence, reframe, obtain embryo, undertake gene edits repair experiment.

    August 2018, liu sees bridge group and Huang Hang make group collaboration publish a paper, ma Fan that uses FBN1 gene mutation asks for the spermatozoon compose of patient alms integratedly to build person embryo, undertake gene edits repair experiment: In 18 embryo, through repair, the genotype that has 16 embryo becomes “ healthy ” .

    Notable is, afore-mentioned all be done not have by human embryo of the experiment by embedded human body or other organism, did not finish gravid, be born without the baby.

    Although approach a bottom line, but all did not even more bound.

    Institution bind: The research development activity such as human gene editor is labelled high risk grade

    When Huang Jun undertakes to human embryo with respect to research group gene edits first, those who use is human triploid (3PN) embryonic cell, fasten ” of “ deformation embryo.

    After an oocyte accepted a spermatozoon, normal oosperm is formed, but triploid is an oocyte accepted two spermatozoon, it cannot normal growth, final meeting dies.

    In addition, this experiment is stopped in 48 hours (8 cells period) , include neurological inside each constituent organs are returned not germinate.

    Even if is such, huang Jun research still causes a mighty uproar.

    When those, academy of American country sanitation (NIH) make a statement say, prohibit undertaking to human embryo gene is transformed, reject to consider to offer scientific research funds to this kind, even if the human deformation that does not have viability is embryonic.

    American California manage is versed in the biologist of the university defends • Baltimore to also express greatly, the apiration of United States Congress is, do not support any research that about human embryo gene transforms, the deformation that includes the mankind is embryonic.

    Domestic Chinese overcomes the biology ethnics of Stanford university in • case (Hank Greely) express, the United States did not prohibit completely embryonic to the mankind relevant research, although academy of American country sanitation won't study related contributive support, but can undertake with private fund.

    In the paper is being narrated before Liu Jianqiao, write, the human gene that American academy of sciences and American college of medicine establish edits committee to released a report to say in Feburary 2017, superintend in existent administrative regulations under, allow gene to edit the basic research on person embryo, but the education outside embryonic body cannot exceed 14 days.

    Association of European mankind genetics (ESHG) major and public policy committee (PPPC) and European mankind reproduction and embryonic society (ESHRE) insurgent news is accepted before the member Guido De Wert of ethical committee teachs this (Www.thepaper.cn) when interviewing, say, to human reproduction department gene group edits need basiccer clinical before security research, association of genetics of “ Europe mankind and European mankind reproduction and embryonic society think clinical reproduction fastens gene group to edit premature, at present still diseased ” .

    Print sends Huang Jun with respect to the paper " protein and cell " Zhang Xiaoxue of periodical executive editor expresses to media, huang Jun before narrate research to accord with Chinese law.

    Ministry of science and technology, former Ministry of Public Health, former state defends the many provisions that the committee of planning makes to be made clear, china prohibits be a purpose to undertake to human gamete, zygote and embryo gene is operated with reproduction.

    But ministry of science and technology and former Ministry of Public Health made in December 2003 " person embryo does a cell to study ethical rudder " also set, can be a purpose in order to consider to embryonic to human body executive gene edits and be decorated, but must observe 14 days of rule: Use the technology such as transplanting of nucleolus of external fertilization, body, mankind embryo that considering to be obtained inside limits, deadline of the education outside “ its body begins to must not exceed 14 day ” from be fertilized or nuclear transplanting; Must not will before narrate the obtained person bursa embryo that already was used at research embedded person or the reproductive system of any other animals.

    After this, the respect is restrained in specific management and ethics, the regulation also grants to father in order to add.

    October 2016, former state defends a committee of planning to promulgate " the biology medicine that involves a person studies ethics examines way " regulation, committee of experts of national medicine ethics is in charge of studying to involving biology medicine of the person medium great ethics problem undertakes study. Disobey the orgnaization that this method sets and individual, cause to other person, belongings damage, ought to assume civil responsibility lawfully; Make crime, investigate criminal duty lawfully.

    2017 of print and distribute of ministry of science and technology " biology technology considers to develop safety administration idea " , the research of the gene project such as the human gene editor that involves “ existence to weigh fresh gale risk develops mobile ” to label high risk grade, ask orgnaization of each scientific research manages strictly.

    human gene editor activity labels high risk grade have a basis.

    Professor of courtyard of a Confucian school of idealist philosophy of the Song and Ming Dynasties of fair condominium of Chinese people university, country sends courtyard researcher Liu Peng to say, editor of gene of “ human body belongs to the risk science and technology that does not decide highly, although have certain and potential profit likely, but the accrual of function of this kind of immunity is not edit ability to get through gene only, in other only the method cannot realize coequal accrual to just can consider to try. ”

    The code of “ home is some, I feel flaw guards a pass that piece in the hospital lax. The opinion of gal of Cai Yu of researcher of academy of medicine of live thing of system of university of ” Shanghai traffic pointed to hospital ethics committee.

    Ethics thinks over: Always had an accident to just close ethical door to be nodded closely every time

    A few involve pair of mankind embryo to have gene editorial experiment, practice, the program that its ethics examines and rigorous degree sufferred outside doubt.

    The small hospital of a civilian battalion established “ ethical committee, but should this ethics committee have much great limits of authority after all? Is ethical commission staff deployed all ready? Whether to have the expert of ethnics respect? ”Beijing assist with the college of medicine humanitarian with social science the institute teachs Zhang Xinqing to challenge.

    “ is current the protection of the person that our country tries to sufferring, the mainest is medical canal total bureau (show bureau of national medicine inspect) " medicaments is clinical experiment quality standard " He Weijian appoint " the biology medicine that involves a person studies ethics examines way " , still have a few otherer the regulation that administers about specific technology, also protection accepts the provision of the person that try. Researcher of institute of philosophy of ” the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing assist with chairman of committee of learning of research center of ethnics of life of college of medicine Qiu Renzong is in the reply is insurgent of news in interviewing, mention, suffer respect of the person that try to be not worth especially in protection at present, new biology technology development is very rapid, concerned protection patient and the formulate that accept the provision of the person that try do not follow to go up, for example gene edits, formulate of this technology need is special regulation.

    “ still is done not have now enough take ethics seriously this thing, always had an accident to just close ethical door to be nodded closely every time. Euramerican with Taiwan area also be to pass ethical scandal (after happening) strengthen ethical construction ceaselessly, it is us only development is too rapid, time is short, a lot of things need to conform with international again, ethics did not catch up with however. A professional personage that army hospital system is engaged in clinical trial is opposite ” insurgent news expresses.

    Huang Jie of undersecretary of national apparatus alms and committee member of transplanting committee chairman, former Ministry of Public Health's husband is accepting the Ceng Di when interviewing to go out, our country earnestly needs to establish committee of authoritative life science ethics in national level.

    “ but reality is our country at present can the committee of ethics of the class that visit town of careful project is returned, clinical project is in hospital careful. Afore-mentioned army hospital systems are engaged in ” the professional personage of clinical trial says, the country wants to plan to save committee of city class ethics to have supervisory effect, but this layer class has not been straightened more complex, still have very a paragraph long the route should go.

    Many expert inside course of study expresses to insurgent news, now the ethical committee of a few hospitals of domestic the patient / the know the inside story that gets the person that try agrees to regard as basically is only work even, put in very big non-standard sex.

    “ edits technical application to have sex of the excessive outside very strong risk as a result of gene, with public interest even closely related human safety, because this can not think completely to want suffer the person that try only,agree to be able to be begun, the ability of examine and verify that must want to pass strict science, ethics, law, politics is begun. ” Liu Peng expresses.

    And there also is such thinking really on code, defend a committee of planning to was announced 2016 according to former state " the biology medicine that involves a person studies ethics examines way " , the expert that the committee member of ethical committee ought to wait for a domain from biology medicine domain and ethnics, law, sociology and the society that are not this orgnaization choose generation in the personage, the number is not gotten little at 7 people, and ought to have the committee member of different sexual distinction.

    Ethics is superintended often as the problem disclose and have progress. Qiu Renzong says, “ I think government and director branch had had very great progress in superintendency respect, this from to gold rice incident the earnest processing of this one problem can see. …… ruins sth (can) become meddlesome, (problem incident) can drive ethics to superintend progress somewhat. ”

    Refine superintend: Vigilant government and society are eager to promoting innovation of science and technology

    The personage inside course of study points out, below big environment of home, a lot of doing editorial researcher bears gene easily fame and gain and capital temptation, because the ethical self-discipline of this researcher appears,attach most importance to especially should.

    By last year November, when group of gene of the 2nd mankind edits international peak to be able to be in Hong Kong university to hold, conference committee proposal has the peak to fall in strong superintendency frame only, just allow to have clinical trial to genetic gene editor, and must follow 10 principles, include not to have reasonable replacement scheme; Be confined to precaution serious illness or disease; Maintain the public to be participated in continuously, assess health and risk of social benefit zephyr continuously; Establish reliable supervisory mechanism, prevent the utility beyond serious illness or disease to wait with preventing an experiment to expand.

    “ has a reporter to challenge directly in Hong Kong today, is the ego tie of scientific group already invalidation? I do not know the answer, I hope. I do not hope to did not come people looks a scientist, the first impression in brain, with the banker that visits wall street it is same. Wang Liming of professor of college of science of life of ” Zhejiang university ever was in friend circle write.

    Outside self-discipline, exterior superintend indispensable also.

    In experiment of gene editor technology, who should be superintendency main body? How does the company that involves, hospital, college superintend division of labor to configure?

    In a few gene editor tests that involve human embryo, statement of relevant orgnaization or is right experiment “ not ” of know the inside story, or claims is not experimental undertaker.

    The faintness that the face exposes the relevant section such as a science and technology, wholesome health to apply superintendency division of labor to go up in technology of human body gene here and not clear, especially how are medical establishment and enterprise superintended, need to refine. ” Liu Peng explains, human body gene edits a technology to be able to be done early, not be complete innovation, the government is original on legislation should against a rainy day, do a few preventive superintendency legislation to intervene, this is the precautionary principle that a lot of developed countries use.

    “ to innovation activity, we accomplish beforehand Zhu Geliang impossibly, but mix to the research of innovation technology for example to after the event apply us to be able to be accomplished be on guard beforehand. ” Qiu Ren Zongtan arrives, for example the gene that the scientist discovers suddenly edits a method, give gene impossibly editorial research and applied formulate standard beforehand, but when gene editorial actor defect is shown gradually, gene edits a technology to be able to be used at person, animal, can use at body cell and reproductive department, can use at cure, precaution to mix increase, can form abecedarian standard. Gene of the first international edits the “ that held in December 2015 for example summit meeting: After science, ethnics and processing ” , already with respect to gene editorial research is mixed the standard with applied corresponding formulate.

    Had code, to violating statute of the activity ask duty and carry out also need to take seriously. “ we some regulations were opposite violate compasses person punish criterion and ask to chief duty clause; Executive respect, regulation is ordered again well, responsibility person is not carried out also is a problem. For example the State Council stipulates orgnaization of the attestation outside the condition has no right to undertake attestation in our country clearly, our country has hospital of several a hunderd schools to accept attestation of orgnaization of the attestation outside the condition almost its ethics committee, it is to violate compasses incident illegally obviously, did not get handling however. ” Qiu Renzong says.

    Liu Peng still expresses, development of “ science and technology is met forever lead is superintended at the government, this is no wonder, but those who need vigilance is the orgnaization that is eager to driving science and technology to innovate and the huge risk that the society can be ignored or underestimate science and technology, this need is in charge of concept and culture level to try to take seriously from the inspect of deep administrative levels. ”

    Statement: Reprinting is transmission information merely, if do not hope to be reprinted or be contacted,reprint the matters concerned such as author's remuneration, contact us please.

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